Project Profiles

All You Need to Know About Pavagada Solar Park

Published on 28th July 2023

Project Highlights:

  • The massive Pavagada Solar Park covers nearly 13,000 acres in the eastern district of Tumkur and was initially planned to have a capacity of 2,000 MW. However, later an additional 50 MW capacity was added, making it one of the largest solar power plants in the world. 
  • The plans for the Pavagada Solar Park were first formulated in February 2015, and its development commenced in January 2016. 
  • As of April 2021, it holds the distinction of being the world's third-largest photovoltaic solar park. The largest solar power projects include the 2,245-megawatt Bhadla Solar Park in Rajasthan, India, and the 2,200-megawatt Huanghe Hydropower Hainan Solar Park in China. 
  • The overall project investment amounted to INR16,500 crore (approximately USD 2.1 billion), making it a substantial investment in clean and sustainable energy. 
  • The National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) implemented 600 MW of solar PV projects out of a total capacity of 2,050 MW, while SECI (Solar Energy Corporation of India) and KREDL (Karnataka Renewable Energy Development Limited) implemented 200 MW and 1,250 MW, respectively. 
  • The project has reached a major milestone, with annual carbon dioxide emissions mitigated at over 578,631 tons


Project Background

The year 2015 marked the establishment of the Karnataka Solar Power Development Corporation Limited (KSPDCL) as a parastatal under the Companies Act, 2013. It operated as a Joint Venture Company between SECI and the Government of India, along with KREDL and the Government of Karnataka. The primary aim of KSPDCL was to plan, develop, and manage solar parks in the state of Karnataka as part of the MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy) Scheme for the Development of Solar Parks and Ultra Mega Solar Power Projects across the country.


As part of the joint venture, KSPDCL invested approximately INR 16500 crores (USD 2.1 billion) in the construction of the solar park.


The "Karnataka Solar Policy 2014-2021" and the "Nava Karnataka Nirmana" initiative both contributed to the development of the Pavagada Park. The former seeks to move away from power generation that is overly reliant on fossil fuels, while the latter was an effort to create a brand-new Karnataka by inviting significant investments like the one at Pavagada.


The solar park comprises a vast 13,000-acre land area, including the regions of Balasamudra, Kyatagancharlu, Tirumani, Vallur, and Rayasamudra. Pavagada was selected as the location for the solar park due to its favorable conditions, including high solar radiation, ample land availability, and low rainfall in the region.



Pavagada solar park is also referred to as Shakti Sthala, and it is situated in the Pavagada taluk of the Tumkur district in the Indian state of Karnataka. It spans an extensive area of 13,000 acres and is situated approximately 180 km away from Bengaluru.


Unique to the Pavagada solar park is the fact that the land used throughout the park is leased from about 2,300 farmers at an initial annual rental rate of Rs 21,000 per acre, with a 5% rise every two years. Given that Pavagada is a drought-hit area, this arrangement benefited both parties. The action was taken in an effort to slow down the large-scale migration from the area, which has experienced drought in 54 of the last 60 years.


Pavagada Solar PV Park


Project Approval

On October 29, 2015, the State High-Level Clearance Committee provisionally approved the project with an estimated investment of INR14,800 crore and the creation of approximately 8,000 job opportunities. The approval was subject to the fulfillment of certain conditions and included the following infrastructure assistance, incentives, and concessions:


  • Land: Around 11,000 acres of land in Pavagada, comprising 254 acres of government land, and the rest being private land, was identified for the project. Out of the government land, 40 acres were designated for the Power Grid Corporation of India, and the remainder was allocated to KSPDCL on a yearly lease for 30 years.
  • Water: The project was allowed to use 1,110 kilogram liters per day (KLPD) of water sourced from borewells, in compliance with relevant regulations.
  • Power: The necessary power supply was to be obtained from Bangalore Electricity Supply Company Limited (BESCOM).


Project Details

The photovoltaic solar panels in the Pavagada solar park are either flat or mounted at an angle of 15 degrees southward. Each 50 MW block at the Pavagada Solar Park is made up of 499,995 First Solar FS-3100 solar photovoltaic modules and 166,668 Canadian Solar CS6X-300P solar panels.


Canadian Solar's CS6X-300P Solar Panels:

  • Each unit consists of 72 poly-crystalline cells, with dimensions of 156mm x 156mm.
  • These panels have an impressive efficiency of up to 15.63% and operate optimally at a voltage of 36.1V.
  • The module frame is made of anodized aluminum alloy, and the front cover is constructed using 3.2mm tempered glass.


First Solar's FS-3100 Solar Photovoltaic Modules:

  • These panels utilize advanced thin-film technology and consist of a cadmium sulfide/cadmium telluride (CdS/CdTe) semiconductor with 146 active cells.
  • The nominal power and voltage of each panel are 100W and 46.8V, respectively.
  • The front glass of the FS-3100 panel is 3.2mm heat-strengthened glass laminated to a 3.2mm tempered back glass cover. Edge-seal encapsulation is used with Series 3 black laminate.


These solar panels were deployed throughout the entire Pavagada Solar Park, contributing to its remarkable installed capacity of 2,050 megawatts (MW) and enabling the generation of clean and sustainable energy. Some other associated infrastructure installed on the site are:


  • Water abstraction system with bore-wells
  • Waste management systems
  • Roads
  • Warehouse and storage facilities
  • Administration and operations building
  • Temporary residential facilities
  • Power lines
  • Construction labor camps
  • Substation/switching station


Power Transmission

  • The electricity produced by each block is transmitted to a 220 kV pooling substation. This transmission is achieved using underground cables with a double-circuit configuration, operating at voltages of 66kV/33kV.
  • The pooling substation, intricately linked to the 400kV/220kV substation, is under the ownership and operation of the Power Grid Corporation of India (PGCIL).
  • The substation is further connected to the 765kV / 400kV PGCIL station in Vasanthanarasapura, Tumkur, and the 400kV / 220kV substation in Gooty, Andhra Pradesh.
  • The entire grid connection was completed by June 2019, marking the successful operationalization of the project


List of Subcontractors Involved in the Project

Project Developer

Capacity (MW)

Tata Power


ReNew Power


Fortum Solar


Avaada Energy


Softbank Energy


Adani Green Energy


ACME Solar


Azure Power


Rattan India


Karnataka Renewable Energy Development Ltd (KREDL)


Total Capacity



Other Subcontractors Involved in the Project


1. L&T: Substations

   - Built four substations with a capacity of 2 x 150 MVA and 220/66 kV each.


2. Amararaja Power Systems: Substations

   - Constructed 4 x 80MVA, 220/33kV substations.


3. Viji Power Transformers: Substation

   - Constructed a 2x8MVA, 66/11kV substation.


4. KMC Constructions: Roads

   - Constructed a total of 75 km of roads within the solar park.


5. Kumar Electricals: Street Lights and Auxiliary Supply

   - Along the roads, streetlights were installed, and the 220kV substations were supplied with auxiliary power.


6. Bhagya Electricals: Power Lines Development

   - Contract was awarded for the construction of power lines.


7. Manasa Enterprises: Power Supply Arrangement

   - Received a contract for the power supply arrangement for the substations.


Impact on the Local Community and Economy

The Pavagada Solar Park has had significant impacts on the local community and economy. Through the innovative method of land leasing, approximately 2,300 farmers in the region have benefited by receiving rent for the land used for the solar park. This has provided them with a steady source of income, especially in a drought-hit area where agriculture has faced challenges.


However, it is important to note that there have been challenges as well. The promise of employment opportunities for the local community did not fully materialize, leading to some dissatisfaction among non-land-owning residents, pastoralists, and laborers who were not considered stakeholders in the land leases. To address such concerns, future solar park projects could explore initiatives that create more employment opportunities for the local population and allow for grazing under the panels to mitigate impacts on traditional livelihoods.


Wrapping Up

The Pavagada solar project is a remarkable advancement in showcasing the strong focus to develop and harness renewable energy to replace the prevailing coal power in India. With the largest solar farms in India like Bhadla Solar Park and Pavagada Solar Park, India is steadily progressing in the solar sector.  


Follow up on the latest development on such largest solar farm projects in India with our Global Projects and Tenders Tracker. It is a one-stop solution for tracking and finding new business leads from 200000+ ongoing and upcoming projects across construction, infrastructure, oil and gas, energy, and EV sectors.


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